From Technological to Virtual Art
By Frank Popper
Cambridge, MA, US: The MIT Press (2007) 190-197, illus.
Char Davies（生於1954年）是加拿大當代藝術家，以創造沉浸式虛擬現實（VR）藝術品而聞名。他的作品Ephémère（1997-1998）是令人印象深刻的沉浸式交互環境。為了體驗這些作品，參與者戴上了頭戴式立體顯示器他認為這是在整個空間內實現全身沉浸感的最有效方法。隨著沉浸者的呼吸，這被一片被森林包圍的空地所取代。一個人可以通過呼吸無休止地漂浮在這片森林中。或進入該空地的孤樹及其葉子的內部；或沉入池塘及其深淵中；或上升到空曠處進入雲層或下降到半透明的根和岩石之間。我認為這些早期即開始的VR作品中，除了技術上的價值之外，作者Char Davies本身的藝術修養也是作品雋永的重要的因素。美的感知和對她所選擇自然界的素材，都能讓觀眾進入一種內觀的原始情狀。作者本身的生理經驗:(深度近視)和懷孕的經驗，影響作者選擇的再現的景象。我個人認為那些非常主觀的選擇，構成了這件作品迷人的個性。
報告者：陳信甫 1019 ppt
文獻題目：The Nature of Code
懂得random()，noise()的差別之後明白函式的應用及使用順序，或是不同的效果會需要不同的函示表現，這兩者之間是幾乎相近，但是對於大概表現之時我會用random去做使用，懂得大概樣後，使用noise來進行生物性修改，移動及顏色都能透過noise來表現，這兩者對於本書後續的教學，都佔有很重要的問題參考，懂得這兩者的應用性，後續會非常好操作，但是我們可能容易陷入使用 noise ( ) 作為函數的功能應用裡。該對象應如何移動？變量要給多少才會有明顯的變化、顏色應用、波形圖形等。但這並不式要跟說您應該或不應該使用隨機性這項功能 random( )。還是您應該或不應該使用 noise ( ) 。關鍵是程式碼是由您定義，會的功能越多，實現你的圖像作品就會更容易。本書的目標是讓你學會並充實你各式各樣的功能。如果您所知道的只有 random( ) ，那麼您的設計思路就會受到限制。當然，noise ( )也會對你有所幫助，但您需要更多。
Topic: Introduction to Artificial Life for People who Like AI ppt
Author: Lana Sinapayen
Abstract: ALife is the bottom-up scientific study of the fundamental principles of life. Artificial Intelligence researchers ponder the nature of intelligence by trying to build intelligent systems from scratch, ALife researchers investigate the nature of “life” by trying to build living systems from scratch. This academic field naturally overlaps with biology and chemistry, but also computer science, astrobiology, physics, complex systems, network sciences, geology, evolutionary science, origins of life research, and of course AI and animal behavior studies. We introduce ALife through the following 6 sections:
ALife Introduction, A short history of Alife, ALife and AI, Conclusion & Vision of ALife, Connection/Demo
Topic: Bioart and Bildung —Wetware: Art, Agency, Animation, an Exhibition as Case Study PDF
Author: Charissa N. Terranova
Recent events in the field of biology have further unfixed the definition of life. The negotiability of “life” is at the center of the exhibition “Wetware: Art, Agency, Animation” at the Beall Center for Art + Technology at the University of California, Irvine. The exhibition includes art by nine international artists working in the avant-garde area of contemporary art called “bioart.” This article is devoted to the unique educational space opened through the practice of bioart, focusing on how the exhibition brings the scientific question “What is life?” to a public audience. Bildung, a term that translates as education but encompasses exploration and growth, is based on the holistic unity of science and art and is used here to show that neither science nor art sacrifices legitimacy or distinction within bioart. Art can suggest design and be useful; science can point to abstraction and be poetic. Bioart inspires a chain of curiosity about the form, materials, media that artists use to probe, shape, direct, and display scientific processes and concepts.
文獻題目：An Analysis of How Interactive Technology Supports the Appreciation of Traditional Chinese Puppetry: A Review of Case Studies
From the perspective of safeguarding Chinese Cultural Heritage, this paper discusses how to enhance the appreciation of traditional Chinese puppetry through the support of interactive technology. The author analyses extensive, yet current case studies, based on the findings described in the interactive systems for puppetry performances and interactive technology for puppetry appreciation. The author summarisesfour aspects of how to enhance the appreciation of, and engagement with, traditional Chinese puppetry:
(1) maintaining originality is necessary for the design phase;
(2) it is crucial to explore how to use interactive technology in order to design a way for adults to appreciate this form of art;
(3) it is also necessary to determine ways to support adult audiences in grasping the cultural significance and folk customs of traditional Chinese puppetry; and
(4) the study’s further main research goals are to investigate ways to use emotional expressions, digital storytelling and other methods in conjunction with interactive technology to help multi-cultural users comprehend traditional Chinese puppetry.
文獻題目：SpinalLog: Visuo-Haptic Feedback in Musculoskeletal Manipulation Training
作者：D. Antony Chacon, Eduardo Velloso, Thuong Hoang, Katrin Wolf
Current techniques for teaching spinal mobilisation follow the traditional classroom approach: an instructor demonstrates a technique and students attempt to emulate it by practising on each other while receiving feedback from the instructor. This paper introduces SpinalLog, a novel tangible user interface (TUI) for teaching and learning spinal mobilisation. The system was co-designed with physiotherapy experts to look and feel like a human spine, supporting the learning of mobilisation techniques through real-time visual feedback and deformation based passive haptic feedback. We evaluated Physical Fidelity, Visual Feedback, and Passive Haptic Feedback in an experiment to understand their effects on physiotherapy students’ ability to replicate a mobilisation pattern recorded by an expert. We found that simultaneous feedback has the largest effect, followed by passive haptic feedback. The high fidelity of the interface has little effect, but it plays an important role in the perception of the system’s benefit.
文獻題目：Exploring Art with a Voice Controlled Multimodal Guide for Blind People
文獻作者：Jorge Iranzo Bartolome, Luis Cavazos Quero, Sunhee Kim, Myung-Yong Um, Jundong Cho
There is an increasing concern to improve the accessibility of artworks for blind people. Much of the effort has been focused on helping the visually impaired people to access the exhibition facilities, but the works of art hosted there are still difficult to experience for them. Particularly, the appreciation of visual artworks is hindered as blind visitors are not allowed to touch them in order to conserve their aesthetics and value. In this work we explore our findings using a prototype of a voice interactive multimodal guide designed to improve the accessibility of visual works of arts, such as paintings, for the blind people. The prototype identifies tactile gestures and voice commands that trigger audio descriptions and sounds while a person explores a 2.5D tactile representation of the artwork placed on the top surface of the prototype. Our preliminary findings include the results of eight user tests and Likert-type surveys.
文獻題目：Deep Appearance Models for Face Rendering
文獻作者：STEPHEN LOMBARDI, JASON SARAGIH, TOMAS SIMON, YASER SHEIKH
文獻來源：PAPER / ACM Digital Library
We introduce a deep appearance model for rendering the human face. Inspired by Active Appearance Models, we develop a data-driven rendering pipeline that learns a joint representation of facial geometry and appearance from a multiview capture setup. Vertex positions and view-specific textures are modeled using a deep variational autoencoder that captures complex nonlinear effects while producing a smooth and compact latent representation. View-specific texture enables the modeling of view-dependent effects such as specularity. In addition, it can also correct for imperfect geometry stemming from biased or low resolution estimates. This is a significant departure from the traditional graphics pipeline, which requires highly accurate geometry as well as all elements of the shading model to achieve realism through physically-inspired light transport. Acquiring such a high level of accuracy is difficult in practice, especially for complex and intricate parts of the face, such as eyelashes and the oral cavity. These are handled naturally by our approach, which does not rely on precise estimates of geometry. Instead, the shading model accommodates deficiencies in geometry though the flexibility afforded by the neural network employed. At inference time, we condition the decoding network on the viewpoint of the camera in order to generate the appropriate texture for rendering. The resulting system can be implemented simply using existing rendering engines through dynamic textures with flat lighting. This representation, together with a novel unsupervised technique for mapping images to facial states, results in a system that is naturally suited to real-time interactive settings such as Virtual Reality (VR).
Topic: Inside the Classification Cube, An Intimate Interaction with A.I. System ppt
Author: Avital Meshi
“Inside the Classification Cube: An Intimate Interaction With an AI System” is a SIGGRAPH 2020 Art Papers selection that explores one of society’s most frequently asked questions — how do people portray themselves versus how others portray them?
The “Classification Cube” art installation was developed as Meshi’s MFA thesis project for the Digital Arts and New Media program at University of California, Santa Cruz (UC Santa Cruz). Throughout this studies, Meshi mainly focused on the role of avatars and possibilities for embodiment in virtual worlds, along with the performative engagement that comes with this practice.
文獻題目：FusePrint: A DIY 2.5D Printing Technique Embracing Everyday Artifacts
文獻作者：Kening Zhu/Alexandru Dancu/Shengdong Zhao
文獻來源：ACM Digital Library/ PAPER
FusePrint is a Stereolithography-based 2.5D rapid prototyping technique that allows high-precision fabrication without high-end modeling tools, enabling the mixing of everyday physical artifacts and liquid conductive gels with photo-reactive resin during the printing process, facilitating the creation of 2.5D objects that perfectly fit the existing objects. Based on our polynomial model on 2.5D resin printing, we developed the design interface of FusePrint, which allows users to design the printed shapes using physical objects as references, generates projection patterns, and notifies users when to place the objects in the resin during the printing process. Our workshops suggested that FusePrint is easy to learn and use, provides a greater level of interactivity, and could be useful for a wide range of applications domains including: mechanical fabrication, wearable accessory, toys, interactive systems, etc.
文獻題目：Interaction in Virtual Environments – How to Control the Environment by using VR-Glasses in the Most Immersive Way
文獻作者：Barbara Streppel (MaibornWolff GmbH, Germany), Dorothea Pantförder and Birgit Vogel-Heuser (Technical University of Munich, Germany)
摘要：Not only in the gaming industry is Virtual Reality (VR) the new way to give users a new experience – in engineering or production plant operation we also see first attempts at finding innovative ways of visualizing data or training plant staff. This is necessary because processes are getting more and more complex thanks to higher interconnection and flexibility. This paper presents actual possibilities of interacting with a virtual environment and provides three concepts for immersive interaction. We also show the results of an evaluation of these concepts at the end of the paper.
文獻題目：Populating Architectural Design: Introducing Scenario-Based Design in Residential Care Projects
作者：Valerie Van der Linden, Hua Dong, Ann Heylighen
摘要：Despite the very aim of designing living environments for people, the perspectives of the end users are underrepresented in architectural design processes. Architects are expected to address the challenges of a diverse and ageing society but, due to increasingly complex design processes, they often have limited access to the perspectives of those they are designing for. This study aims to bring people’s spatial experience to the foreground in architects’ design processes, by turning to techniques developed by related design disciplines. More precisely, it analyses the potential of scenario-based design, a family of techniques for exploring user experience in design, which architects are largely unfamiliar with. Based on elements like personas, scenarios, and user journeys, a scenario-based design approach tailored to architectural design’s particularities was developed. Test workshops were conducted in two architecture firms involved in designing residential care projects, and findings were discussed with an expert panel. Findings illustrate how these workshops offered architects insight into user profiles and themes, facilitated exploring and diversifying potential futures during design development, and supported communication with team members and the client. Additional opportunities and challenges are identified, which can advance the development of an integrated approach to support architects in designing human-centred environments.
Reference: Ars Electronica Festival 2019, (2)
“Cybernation” is an installation that controls plant growth. By using both phototropism and apogeotropism, plants can be shaped by human. At first, a path is drawn in a 3d software to represent the expected plant growth. Then the model is imported into the control program of the installation. Through a series of calculation, the motor connected to the plant is activated to spin at different angles, controlling the direction of sunlight and gravity. Eventually the plant grows into the shape as designed. With calculation, the unpredictable life can be controlled, and the plant can be shaped.
Topic: The Shortcomings of Design Thinking when Compared to Designerly Thinking
（The Design Journal Pages 813-832 | Received 11 Oct 2018, Accepted 17 May 2019, Published online: 10 Sep 2019）
Aurthor：Linda Nhu Laursen & Louise Møller Haase
When the concept of design thinking was first introduced, approximately 15 years ago, it was praised by universities, businesses and consultancies alike. Evidence of the increasing amount of attention being paid to the concept can be found in its widespread implementation within business practices by leading companies, such as SAP, IBM and Procter & Gamble, the growth and popularity schools that teaches design thinking e.g. d.schools (Korn and Silverman 2012) and the growing number of related studies in adjacent fields, such innovation management (Calgreen, Elmquist, and Rauth 2016).
Consequently, many design scholars disregarded and ignored discussions concerning design thinking, believing it to be irrelevant. More recently, innovation management scholars have criticized design thinking for its lack of both a clear definition and a clear methodology (Johansson-Sko€ldberg, Woodilla, and C¸etinkaya 2013). Furthermore, studies have shown that implementing design thinking within organizations is very challenging, which has caused management scholars to question its value (Carlgren et al. 2016). As the mounting criticism of design thinking has a negative influence on how design in general is perceived, we argue that the concept should not simply be either adopted or ignored, but rather that a closer examination of design thinking is needed.